Uncertainty-Driven Loss for Single Image



Qian Ning1    Weisheng Dong1*    Xin Li2    Jinjian Wu1    Guangming Shi1

1School of Artificial Intelligence, Xidian University               2West Virginia University





Figure 1. The overview of training SISR network with proposed L_UDL loss. The whole training process can divided into two steps; the first step estimates the uncertainty θ precisely and the second step generates the final mean value y. In step1 shown in (a), the mean value y and variance θ are pretrained by L_ESU loss. During step2, as shown in (b), the mean value y network is trained by L_UDL loss, while the network of inferring variance y is fixed. Note that the mean value y network of step2 starts training from the pretrained network of step1. The Nearest Upsampling denotes interpolation operator.





In low-level vision such as single image super-resolution (SISR), traditional MSE or L_1 loss function treats every pixel equally with the assumption that the importance of all pixels is the same. However, it has been long recognized that texture and edge areas carry more important visual information than smooth areas in photographic images. How to achieve such spatial adaptation in a principled manner has been an open problem in both traditional model-based and modern learning-based approaches toward SISR. In this paper, we propose a new adaptive weighted loss for SISR to train deep networks focusing on challenging situations such as textured and edge pixels with high uncertainty. Specifically, we introduce variance estimation characterizing the uncertainty on a pixel-by-pixel basis into SISR solutions so the targeted pixels in a high-resolution image (mean) and their corresponding uncertainty (variance) can be learned simultaneously. Moreover, uncertainty estimation allows us to leverage conventional wisdom such as sparsity prior for regularizing SISR solutions. Ultimately, pixels with large certainty (e.g., texture and edge pixels) will be prioritized for SISR according to their importance to visual quality. For the first time, we demonstrate that such uncertainty-driven loss can achieve better results than MSE or L_1 loss for a wide range of network architectures. Experimental results on three popular SISR networks show that our proposed uncertainty-driven loss has achieved better PSNR performance than traditional loss functions without any increased computation during testing.





                NeurIPS  2021                                 



Qian Ning, Weisheng Dong, Xin Li, Jinjian Wu, Guangming Shi, " Uncertainty-Driven Loss for Single Image Super-Resolution ", in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), 2021.





  title={ Uncertainty-Driven Loss for Single Image Super-Resolution },

  author={ Ning Qian and Dong, WeiSheng and Li, Xin and Wu, Jinjian and Shi, Guangming },

  booktitle={Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems},























Qian Ning, Email: ningqian@stu.xidian.edu.cn

Weisheng Dong*, Email: wsdong@mail.xidian.edu.cn

Xin Li, Email: xin.li@mail.wvu.edu

Jinjian Wu, Email: jinjian.wu@mail.xidian.edu.cn

Guangming Shi, Email: gmshi@xidian.edu.cn